: Tammuz was the Babylonian god who was both the son and escort of Ishtar. He spent one year with the earth goddess Ishtar and one year with the underworld goddess Erishkigal.
: I got this information from page 195 of Robert E. Bell's Women of Classical Mythology
. He says he got it from Hesychius' Eunostos
. I have no idea what that is, but I have great trust in Robert Bell.
: Dike is the ancient greek word for "justice" as related to custom - especially human justice (as Janet so correctly corrected me!) as opposed to the more divine
justice of her mother Themis. There was a bit of debate about Dike in the Guestbook of my page, so I thought I'd give Stephen some airtime and record it here before it disappears forever.
Stephen: Dike was the Greek Goddess of Justice. She was the daughter of Zeus and Themis. She was frequently seen
fighting her sister Adikia (injustice), who probably stole her Bratz doll or something. Dike was blended with the Roman Goddess Iustitia (also known as Justitia), to create our modern Lady Liberty, that is shown around and inside American courthouses. The sword and blindfold of Lady Liberty probably developed around the 16th century. An important note is that the sword is sheathed, and therefore
not as threatening. It's tempting to think that the scales she holds is from the Egyptian goddess of mythology, Ma'at. Ma'at helped judged the souls of the Egyptian dead along with Horus, who guides the dead to the judgement hall, and Thoth who records the judgement. Osiris conducted the judgement, and the scales were supported by two monsters: Ammut (which means the devourer of the dead) and
Babi. During the actual judgement the soul's heart was weighed on the scale opposite the feather of Maat. If the heart weighed the scale down, the dead were sentenced to a place of punishment, slaughter, fire and boiling water. The use of the scales may have been a coincidence, however, some of our founding fathers were Free Masons, who did use a great deal of Egyptian motifs, but usually within
an Enlightenment period form of Christianity.
According to Robert Gravesâ€™s book, â€œThe Greek Myths v. 1,â€ Tyche (Dike) is a daughter of Zeus and she decides all mortalâ€™s destinies. She can be too generous and stingy. When too generous, the goddess Nemesis steps in to humiliate the receiver of the bounty. In footnote #1, Graves writes that
Tyche/Dike (fortune) was an artificially created deity invented by early philosophers. She was never a part of the official pantheon of Greek deities.
The book, â€œThe Womenâ€™s Encyclopedia of Myths and Legends,â€ by Barbara G. Walker, writes that Dike is an,â€œ(A)lternative spelling of the Greek Fate-goddess Tycheâ€¦called by the Orphics (followers
of the poet-god Orpheus) Eurydiceâ€¦â€ On Eurydice, Walker writes, that it means â€œUniversal Dike,â€ the mother of Fateâ€¦who received Orpheusâ€™s soul into the afterlife. Later the Doric Greeks turned Eurydice into Orpheusâ€™s wife. She was bitten by a snake and sent to the land of the dead.
Ailia: 1) Robert Graves, while extremely
interesting, should ALWAYS be taken with a grain (or a handful) of salt. His work is not really recognized by scholars except as a cool exercise in what ancient Greek life/religion might have been like if it was really as lovely and primitive and matriarchal as we like to imagine. I, too, was once an avid Robert Graves fan. Now I'm a fan who knows he was kinda full of it.
2) Although I have Barbara Walker's book on my Amazon.com wishlist, I have not actually read it and so do not feel prepared to offer criticism on her scholarship. BUT! I do feel the need to critique the assumption that Dike=Tyche=Eurydice. Dike means something a little more complex than "justice" but it definitely does not mean "fortune," which is
the definition of tyche. Also Dike (delta iota kappa eta), though it sounds similar in English, is pretty distant from Tyche (tao upsilon chi eta). They share one vowel. So do "dog" and "cow". Point being? I am also very suspicious of the connection to Eurydice. In fact, I'm very suspicious of anyone quoting the Orphic cult as their definitive source, but that's another complain altogether.
Eurydice (Eurydike) is literally "wide justice." It's not a very uncommon name. I talk briefly about it on the site, but not extensively because I am not extensively educated on it. There are at least 12 Eurydices in Classical mythology, some are super interesting (Orpheus' Eurydice and Danae's mom, for example) and some not so much (the mother of Archemorus and wife of Lycurgus - what
accomplishments!), but there are none that could be mistaken, as far as I'm concerned, for the goddess personifying "right", "order", "custom", "judgement", and/or "law" (that straight from the Little Liddell).
3. Also, in case I didn't convince you with the vowel argument, the only possible way I can imagine Ms. Walker (or Mr. Graves) conflating
the two goddesses is by the statement in the Hyginus Astronomica 2.25 that some people (not the smart people who apparently thought she was Dike) said the constellation Virgo represented Fortuna (the Romanized Tyche). It's possible that they have some source I don't have, but I doubt it. Also: Stephen, my dear, I'm afraid you have misrepresented poor Rob. He actually does NOT say that Tyche/Dike
is anything! He says that Tyche, LIKE Dike (not to mention Aedos), is a creation of the philosophers. I have not decided yet whether or not I agree with him, but that is a horse of a different color, wouldn't you say?
4. The final point, if you've already written your paper and your teacher is bitching at you and you have no where else to turn is
that Dike WAS in fact a daughter of Zeus (often, in fact, considered one of the Horae, which of course Tyche never is, but whatever) and so (in Orphic Hymn 72 and Pindar's Olympian Ode) is Tyche. Nevermind that Zeus had so many children I don't think anyone has ever actually attempted a complete unabridged list! It's a connection, darnit!
that maybe I have helped in your search for more information on Dike, but probably I have just given you less to work with. I wish that these papers they keep assigning people allowed one to talk about the centuries of silly scholarship that have risen up around these people and why - now THERE'S an essay I wouldn't mind reading!
: Information from
. He cites Lucian's Dialogue of the Gods
1.18.20; and Nonnus' Dionysiaca
and Paregoron (Consoler). The sculptor of the latter two was named
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